Türk Nöroşirürji Dergisi 2022 , Vol 32 , Num 1
The Role of the Tumor Microenvironment in Tumor Progression
Kübra Sena BAŞ TOPCU1
1Bartın Üniversitesi, Fen Fakültesi, Moleküler Biyoloji ve Genetik Bölümü, Bartın, Türkiye Cancer cells need a heterogeneous tumor microenvironment for tumor progression and metastasis. Cancer cells are in mutual communication with the cellular and non-cellular components in the tumor microenvironment and this enables them to acquire features such as maintenance of the proliferative signals that facilitate metastasis, resistance to cell death, induction of angiogenesis, and escape from the destructive effect of immune cells. The cellular components consist of various cells such as cancer cells, cancer stem cells, healthy cells, fibroblasts, pericytes, adipocytes, lymphocytes, and dendritic cells, while the non-cellular components include cytokines, growth factors, DNAs, RNAs, and the extracellular matrix. At the same time, the hypoxic and inflammation environment in the tumor microenvironment reduces the effectiveness of immunotherapy and creates drug resistance. In this review, whether targeting multiple cell types in the tumor microenvironment and the various cytokines they release, as well as the ligands and receptors involved in intercellular interaction, can halt the pathways that play a key role in tumor progression and thus contribute to related treatment methods by preventing the development of both angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis is considered. Anahtar Kelimeler : Angiogenesis, Cancer immunotherapy, Cancer therapy, Metastasis, Tumor microenvironment