Türk Nöroşirürji Dergisi 2015 , Vol 25 , Num 3
Hippocampus: Its Structure and Functions
Yusuf İZCİ1, Yahya Cem ERBAŞ2
1Gülhane Askeri Tıp Akademisi, Beyin ve Sinir Cerrahisi Anabilim Dalı, Ankara, Türkiye
2Bilgi Hastanesi, Nöroşirürji Kliniği, Ankara, Türkiye
The hippocampus is the most wondered and investigated part of the brain since the early historical periods. It is located in the medial part of the temporal lobe and has a close neighbourhood with the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle. The anatomical characteristics are well known, but its physiological properties and functions are not well understood. It is a part of the limbic system. Previously, it was believed that the hippocampus was a center related to olfactory functions but it was shown in the second part of the 20th century that the hippocampus has functions related to emotion, memory and spatial learning. The hippocampus, which is one of the targets of epilepsy surgery, has many and powerful neural connections both within itself and with the other parts of the brain. In recent years, many studies have been conducted on these networks and some specific cells such as place cells, time cells, head-direction cells and border cells have been discovered in the hippocampus. The aim of this review was to provide brief information on the anatomy, histological structure and physiology of the hippocampus, to summarize the latest studies on its functions, and to discuss how these studies will contribute to the treatment of neurological disorders in the future. Anahtar Kelimeler : Hippocampus, Memory, Emotion, Navigation